【ロコモの原因と予防】ロコモティブシンドロームってなんですか?

ロコモティブシンドロームを知っていますか?加齢により、身体のあちらこちらに不具合を感じることの多くなる高齢者。場合によっては、介護が必要になることもありますが、介護が必要になる原因と、ロコモティブシンドロームは深い関係があります。

この記事では、ロコモティブシンドロームの原因と予防についてまとめています。

目次

ロコモティブシンドローム、略して「ロコモ」とは…

ロコモティブシンドローム【locomotive syndrome】とは、骨・関節・筋肉といった運動器が障害されることで、「立つ」「歩く」といった機能が 低下してしまい、介護が必要になる危険性の高い状態のことを言います。略してロコモとも呼ばれており、和名は「運動器症候群」といいます。

高齢者の介護が必要になる原因として「運動器の障害」「脳血管疾患(脳卒中)」「認知症」「高齢による衰弱」が挙げられますが、その中でも、運動器の障害は群を抜いて、介護が必要な状態に近づくとことになると言われています。
日本の平均寿命は、女性が87.71歳、男性が81.56歳と厚生労働省が2020年に発表しています。

平均寿命が伸びれば伸びるほど、運動器の維持は重要なものとなり、誰もが理想とする、健康な老後を送るためにも意識して、ロコモを予防するよう働きかけなくてはなりません。

ロコモ・フレイル・サルコぺニア 3つの違いは?

ロコモの説明を聞いて、似たような言葉があることをご存じの方もいらっしゃるはずです。

実はロコモの他にも「フレイル」や「サルコペニア」と言った運動器に関する状態を指す言葉が存在するため、ここではこの3つの違いを確認していきます。

・サルコペニア
高齢になるに伴い、筋肉の量が減少していく現象のことで、老化減少の一つと言われています。成長のピークを超え、30歳頃から筋肉が減少し、進行が始まることがわかっています。サルコペニアは一過性の現象ではなく、生涯を通して進行すると考えられています。主に筋の線維数と横断面積の減少が進み、主な原因は身体を動かさなくなるなどの、運動不足と考えられています。

しかし、そのメカニズムは解明されていません。
サルコぺニアの症状を見分ける場面として、ペットボトルのふたが開けづらくなったり、横断歩道を青信号の間に渡ることができないなどの苦労を感じることがあります。ロコモに含まれるのがサルコペニアで、フレイルにも影響します。

・フレイル
加齢するに従って、身体の能力や機能が低下し、健康について、あらゆる障害を起こしやすくなった状態のことを指します。健康問題のない状態、介護を必要とする要介護の状態の中間的な状態がフレイルです。

日々の生活習慣によっては、要介護に移ってしまうこともある一方、健常な状態に戻ることも可能な段階です。サルコペニアやロコモは身体的面についてですが、フレイルは精神心理・社会・身体の影響を受けるもので、中でも身体のフレイルはサルコペニア・ロコモを含んだ言葉です。

フレイル>ロコモ>サルコペニア

3つの言葉はいずれも共通点があり、わかりづらいものです。しかし、介護予防のためには、このどれも予防する必要があり、適切に対応することで、健康な状態に戻る可能性があると言われています。

ロコモの原因と予防について

介護予防のためにも、ロコモの原因を知り、予防につなげていくことが大切です。
ロコモを引き起こす主な原因は、次のようなものがあると言われています。

・老化
・運動をする機会が減ることによる、運動不足
・自動車やエレベーターなどを利用する機会が増える
・過度なスポーツ、無理な姿勢による障害や身体の使い過ぎによって起こる怪我
・メタボ体型、極端なやせ型体型
・腰や膝などの大きな関節の痛みや、不調を放置すること
・骨粗鬆症、変形性関節症、変形性脊椎症などの運動器疾患
・外出する機会が減少する、外出自粛など
・栄養不足


このことからも、昔と比較し、便利になった現代にはロコモになりやすい状態が揃っているとも言えます。日常生活で、エレベーター等、便利なものを活用しながらも、身体を動かす工夫をしながら、ロコモの予防に努めることを習慣づけます。

ロコモ予防①
栄養バランスの取れた食事、骨や筋肉を強くする栄養素を充分に摂る
⇒バランスの良い食事とは、5大栄養素をバランスよくとり、メニューは 主食(穀物)・主菜(肉、魚、卵、大豆製品等、たんぱく質メイン)・副菜(野菜、きのこ、海藻、いも等、野菜中心としたおかず)・乳製品・果物で組み立てるようにします。骨を強くするためには、緑黄色野菜や海藻類、乳製品や小魚からカルシウムを摂りましょう。
卯の花、ひじきの煮物、ほうれん草のお浸し、ちりめんじゃこなどが、おすすめです。

ロコモ予防➁
運動し、骨や筋肉を使う

⇒筋肉は使わなければ弱くなってしまいます。次にあげるような、簡単な運動を継続させましょう。

□片足上げ…床に足が付かない程度に片足をあげます。姿勢を真っすぐにし、行いましょう。支えが必要な場合は、両手または、片手をつけて行います。左右1分間ずつ、1日3回行います

□スクワット…足を肩幅より少し広めに開き、ゆっくりとお尻を後ろに引くように、体幹を沈めます。ゆっくりと5-6回おこない1セットとし、1日3回行いましょう。

まとめ

ロコモティブシンドローム(ロコモ)は運動器が障害されることにより起こる症状です。

高齢者の介護が必要になる原因の第一位は、運動器の障害で、介護を予防するためにも、ロコモを予防することが大切です。ロコモに関連する言葉として、サルコペニアとフレイルが存在し、多少意味は異なりますが、介護予防のためにはいずれも予防する必要があります。

ロコモの予防には運動と食事が大切で、継続して取り組む必要があります。

介護の相談窓口
  • 「今後の生活環境が変わる事への不安」や「介護を使って生活をどうデザインをしていったら良いか」など介護は協力体制で成り立っております。 ちょっとでも解決できる、ストレス軽減できる記事を目指し、一つの相談場所のメディアを目指しております。

予防

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